RTF, DOC, and HTML - Part 2

RTF, DOC, and HTML - Part 2

In the previous article, we had an overview of the two most common text formats - Word, RTF. In this part of the series, we are going to explore HTML, a mighty form that is used in every browsing platform and is the format that appears most often in your daily life. So now, let's rock !!!

What is HTML?

  • HTML (short for Hyper Text Markup Language) is a markup language designed to create web pages with the informations that presented in the World Wide Web. Together with CSS and JavaScript, HTML creates a technical trinity for the World Wide Web. HTML is used in organizations that need complex publishing requirements. HTML has become aworldwide Internet standard maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The latest official version of HTML is HTML 4.01 (1999). Later, the developers replaced it with XHTML. For now, HTML is being developed with the HTML5 version and promising to bring a new look for the Web.
  • By using dynamic HTML or Ajax, programmers can be created and processed by a large number of tools, from a simple text editor program - which can be typed right from the first lines - for to complex WYSIWYG publishing tools. Hypertext is how Web pages (HTML documents) are connected. And so, the link on the Web is called Hypertext. As the name suggests, HTML is a markup language, meaning you use HTML to mark a text document with The tag tells the browser how to structure it to display on the screen.

The history of HTML

  • Tim Berners-Lee is the one who created HTML. He is a physicist at the CERN research center in Switzerland. He came up with the idea for the hypertext system on the Internet.
  • Hypertext means the text contains links, where the viewer can access immediately. Tim Berners-Lee published the first version of HTML in 1991 including 18 HTML tags. Since then, each new version of HTML has new tags and attributes.
  • According to the Mozilla Developer Network: HTML Element Reference, there are currently more than 140 HTML tags, despite having suspended some of them (not supported by modern browsers).
  • Quickly gaining popularity, HTML is considered the secret of a website. HTML constructions and structures are operated and developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). You can check the latest status of this language at any time on the W3C's website.
  • The latest upgrade was in 2014 when the HTML5 standard was released. It adds several tags to the markup, to determine what the content is, such as <article>, <header>, and <footer>.
  • File name extension
  • .html
  • .htm
  • Internet media type
  • text
  • html
  • Type code: TEXT
  • Developed by
  • W3C
  • WHATWG
  • First released: 1993; 27 years ago
  • Latest version 5.0 / 5.1 (working draft) / October 28, 2014; 5 years ago
  • Document format: Document file format
  • Expanded from SGML
  • Expanded to XHTML
  • Standard
  • ISO / IEC 15445
  • W3C
  • HTML5
  • HTML Living Standard
  • W3C HTML 5.1
  • Open format? Yes

Markup

  • There are four types of markup elements in HTML:
  • Structured markup that describes the purpose of the text
  • The markup represents the visual appearance of the text regardless of its function (for example, <b> bold </b> will display boldface text).
  • Highlight the external link that contains the link from page to page (for example, <a href= "https://www.officecomponent.com/"> Office Component</a> will display the word Office Component as a link. link to a specific URL).
  • Control component elements help create objects (for example, buttons and lists).

Separate presentation and content

Trying to separate the content from the appearance of an HTML file has led to the appearance of new standards (in this case, XHTML). These standards emphasize the use of markup tags for defining document structures such as headings, paragraphs, quoted text blocks, and tables, rather than presenting markup tags. visually, like <font>, <b> (bold), and <i> (italic). Such presentation codes have been removed from the HTML 4.01 Strict and XHTML specifications to facilitate CSS. CSS provides a solution to help separate the HTML structure from the presentation of its content. View content separation and presentation.

HTML page structure

    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html lang="en">
        <head>
            <meta charset="UTF-8">
            <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
            <meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">
            <title>Document</title>
        </head>
        <body>
            Welcome to Office Component
        </body>
    </html>

How is HTML handled?

  • When formed an HTML file, the web browser will perform this file's handling. The browser will then play the role of reading HTML content from the inside tags and will switch to marked text to read, listen, or understand (understood by computer bots).

What program used for edit HTML documents?

  • HTML is a hypertext file, so you can use text editors that do not have text formatting functions to create an HTML file. In Windows systems, you can use Notepad to create an HTML file, while on Mac you may want to use TextEdit and Vim on other Linux operating systems. As long as you then have to save the file as a .html. extension and use the website browser to read it.
  • However, Notepad is straightforward to use for editing purposes, so from the following articles, we will use another similar program to edit HTML. And I also never encourage you to edit any HTML file with Notepad to avoid errors displaying characters.

What role does HTML play?

  • As we said before, HTML is a hypertext markup language, so it will play the role of building hypertext structure on a website or declaring digital files (media) such as images, videos, music.
  • It does not mean that we are only using HTML to create a website, HTML only plays a forming role on the site. These will include:
  • HTML - Build the hypertext's structure and format.
  • CSS - Formats the raw hypertext generated from HTML into a website layout, with colors, background images, etc.
  • Javascript - Creates events that interact with user behavior (e.g., clicking on a picture on it will have a zooming effect).
  • PHP - Used for processing and exchanging server-to-browser data (for example, PHP will store these articles in the server).
  • MySQL - Structured query database management system (SQL - for instance, items will be saved as SQL data).
  • But here, temporarily, you only need to care about HTML. To make it easier to understand, think that if the website is a complete body, HTML is the skeleton of that body; it is like a frame.
  • Thus, regardless of the type of website, communicating with any programming language to process data, it still needs HTML to display content for visitors to view.
  • By the way, I also say there are two main types of website:
  • Static website - A site that does not communicate with the webserver to send and receive data, but only the data is pre-declared by HTML, and the browser reads.
  • Dynamic website (dynamic web) - A site that communicates with a server to send and receive data, the data will be sent out to users in HTML text, and the browser will display it. For a website to communicate with the webserver, some server-side programming languages ​​such as PHP, ASP.NET, Ruby, etc. will be used. For example, a website made with WordPress is a dynamic website.

Conclude

We have explained quite detailed and thorough about HTML, and its role on the website is like. At first glance, you may think this information is for reference only, but it is critical information, because you have to do the web, so you must understand it, or everything rest will be a nightmare.

In the next post of this Word series, we shall introduce you to some conversion operations between formats, helping you maximize your work efficiency.

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